Definition of Testing:

Testing is the method or process to ensure and verifying existing materials quality. It is a particular process to diagnosis the features of a product or service by implementing proven standard. It has to be done by using some recognized parameters to get optimum results. Nowadays several kinds of testing are essential before launching a product to market to ensure its quality and longevity. There are many competitors exist in the market to grab your region. Thus manufactures don’t wish to take the risk of any hassles after sales onward because it’s related upon their goodwill.

 

In the context of garment business, testing means to get an optimum quality of a product which can fulfill buyers satisfactions as well as user’s demands.

Quality is the key point to increase the sale volume of any organizations and it also ensures customers satisfaction. If someone wishes to longer his business generation to generation and deserve good margin then he should maintain a quality standard of his products. In the present context of apparel business quality standards mostly depend upon modern technology to ensure a level of quality which can be used as a standard when comparing other things by the users and buyers. The main aspect to do lab test before launching a product to make sure good quality, promote repeat sales as well as product safety and prevent recalls, minimize customer complaints.

Chronological Sequence of Lab Testing:

Apparel testing was first inaugurated by AATCC (American Association for Textile Chemists and Colorists) in 1921.

March 31, 1940 – fashion industry of New York has made awareness among fashion merchandisers to do initial testing of apparel and accessories before launching products in local stores.

June 17, 1951 – Chicago Reliance Manufacturing Company has established a complete textile testing laboratory in the USA to make sure product quality.

April 12, 1955 – New York’s Fashion Institute of Technology was launched to implement improvise techniques in fabricating textiles into apparels.

1973 – Texanlab was started to make sure product quality which is now one of the largest independent textile testing institutes in Asia-pacific region.

October 1, 2003 – The American Society for Testing and Materials has organized ASTM F739 as a standard test method for ensuring permeation resistance.

In June 2000, renowned lab test service providers Bureau Verities and MTL have extended their apparel testing service in Bangladesh.

In January 2002, MTL and ACTS Testing Labs, Inc. merged into one entity to provide better service of their customers.

Testing Methods:

Lab Test is essential before going to bilk production to fix the standard of any items or ensure the quality of the goods that the items do not exist any harmful elements. It will reduce hassles as well as costing and increase the demand of the commodities. Please find some sources of standard test methods especially for apparel testing:

 

Standard test methods for apparel testing

List of the Tests:

Several globally recognized renowned testing service providers are available to do the following test. Before testing you should ask buyer if they have any nominated laboratory because each buyer has a particular dependable testing service provider. Usually, buyer fixes the testing service provider to make sure their products quality. Thus you can’t go anywhere to do lab test as your wish. You have to fulfill buyer’s requirements during testing.

Accessories Tests:

  1. Appearance after storage
  2. Resistance to ironing
  3. Zipper strength
  4. Durability of zipper
  5. Operability of zipper
  6. Zipper and Button toxicity
  7. Chain crosswise test of the zipper
  8. Slider twist off strength of zipper
  9. Top stop- zipped
  10. Button stop
  11. Slider pull-off strength, puller attachment strength test
  12. Slider lock hold strength test of zipper
  13. Top stop-unzipped
  14. Element pull off strength
  15. Closed-end test
  16. Shearing strength of hooks & loops fastener.
  17. Peeling strength of hooks & loops fastener.
  18. Separating unit crosswise strength
  19. Lateral strength of open attachment test
  20. Consecutive adhere / separation exercising on hooks & loops fastener
  21. Unsnapping of snap fasteners
  22. Security of metallic buttons, rivets etc.
  23. Security of button snap
  24. Strength of buttons
  25. Button tension, torque & impact test
  26. Resistance to washing liquor
  27. Small parts attachment
  28. Element slippage strength
  29. Open end fastener box test

Strength Tests:

  1. Tear Strength
  2. Bonding Strength
  3. Tensile Strength test
  4. Seam Performance
  5. Tenacity of Yarn
  6. Single Thread or Yarn Strength

Dimensional Stability (Shrinkage) & Related Tests:

  1. Durability wash of the garment
  2. Garments cleansing
  3. Care Label Verification
  4. Care label Recommendation
  5. Measurement of Bow & Skewness
  6. Dimensional Stability to Ironing
  7. Dimensional Stability to Free Steam
  8. Dimensional stability to relaxation
  9. Dimensional stability to felting
  10. Dimensional Stability to Washing
  11. Dimensional Stability to Dry Cleaning
  12. Appearance after Dry Cleaning
  13. Appearance after Laundering
  14. Skewing of Fabrics & Garments

Fabric Performance Tests:

  1. Flammability test
  2. Absorbency of Textiles
  3. Water Repellent test
  4. Fabric stiffness
  5. Water resistance
  6. Abrasion resistance
  7. Pilling resistance
  8. Air permeability test
  9. Water vapor permeability
  10. Oil repellency
  11. Soil release
  12. Stretch & Recovery
  13. Bursting strength test
  14. Wrinkle or Crease recovery
  15. Wicking

Color Fastness Tests:

  1. Effect of Heat test
  2. Shade Variation
  3. Acid Spotting
  4. Water Spotting
  5. Bleaching
  6. Chlorine Bleaching
  7. Non-Chlorine Bleaching
  8. Non-Chlorine Bleaching
  9. Washing fastness test
  10. Perspiration (Acid & Alkaline) fastness test
  11. Rubbing or Crocking (Dry & Wet) fastness test
  12. Organic Solvent fastness test
  13. Water fastness test
  14. Light fastness test
  15. Ozone fastness test
  16. Sea Water fastness test
  17. Chlorinated Water fastness test
  18. Dry Cleaning fastness test
  19. Dry Heat fastness test
  20. Hot Pressing fastness test
  21. Alkali spotting fastness test
  22. Actual Laundering
  23. Saliva fastness test
  24. Phenolic Yellowing

Chemical Tests:

  1. Fiber content
  2. pH value
  3. Aging test
  4. Formaldehyde spot test
  5. Nickel spot test
  6. Phenolic yellowing
  7. Dye transfer to storage
  8. Chlorinated pool water
  9. Formaldehyde content
  10. Colorfastness to perspiration
  11. Colorfastness to water
  12. Colorfastness to sea water
  13. Colorfastness to ozone
  14. Colorfastness to washing
  15. Colorfastness to dry cleaning
  16. Colorfastness to saliva
  17. Colorfastness to chlorine & non-chlorine bleach

Individual Tests:

  1. Azo dyes
  2. PFOS/PFOA
  3. VOC
  4. PAH
  5. Phthalates
  6. Water column
  7. UV Protection
  8. Construction DMFu
  9. Formaldehyde
  10. Sensory test
  11. Fiber content
  12. Tensile test zipper
  13. Total Lead
  14. Total Cadmium
  15. Total Cadmium and Lead
  16. Antimony in PES
  17. Origination compounds
  18. Sensitizing disperse dyes
  19. Colorfastness to saliva & perspiration
  20. Chlorinated aromatic carrier
  21. Chlorinated Phenols (PCP)
  22. Chromium VI (after aging)

Notes:

Here I have tried to compile some necessary tests which are known as common in the apparel industry. Beside this sometimes some uncommon tests have to do base on the specific demand of buyers. Test fees may vary from one provider to another provider.

Article Source:

All of the related information has picked up from following sites.

  1. https://group.bureauveritas.com
  2. www.labtex.com.bd
  3. https://www.sgs.com
  4. www.intertek-labtest.com
  5. https://www.tuv-sud.com/home_com
  6. ISO, AATCC standard reference books
  7. http://www.mts-global.com/en/index.html
  8. www.precisiontesting.com
  9. www.goldnfiber.com