Garments production is a complicated business. It is a business path where so many guys have to perform to achieve targets. It is hard working track where every minute is counted. Someone have to pay more attention to executing all functions than any other business. It is little bit complicated, challenging and point oriented job. If someone does the task perfectly it is well and good, but if someone is having short of practical knowledge, lack of skill and careless attitude, the result cannot be imaginable. There has no option to show any inattention in this profession. They have to work in a time frame and achieve the target delivery date if we observe their job routine closely. Let’s find a chronological sequence of garments orders execution process in the manufacturing factory.
1. Inquiry of a product: First of all, merchandising manager has to contact the buyer representative and send their profile. They also assure them of making buyer required sample or offer their self-made sample or collect the product from the buyer and inquiry the product including all technical issues. Besides this, should make a swatch card and bill of material sheet with rough consumption for sourcing material suppliers.
2. Lead time/Space Availability:
Lead time is duration from order placing to receive the finished goods. This channel is included value chain model to supply chain management. Vendors are bound to hit buyer lead time. Otherwise, claim will be imposed because; buyers anticipate the demand of product sale via survey or point of sale order. That’s why warehouse is being pre-booked. So, buyer is compelled to pay the rent of warehouse. That’s why buyer imposes the claim as compensation if vendor fails to hit the lead-time.
Costing of garments is a necessary task for RMG merchandiser, especially in soft-line. Overall chance of getting order and profit depends on it simultaneously. Usually, costing is an attempt to calculate the total cost of production of finished goods. Costing is done considering below parameters-
A) Cost of all materials like fabric, accessories, packaging items
B) Cost of production (CM)
C) Cost of other items like printing, washing, embroidery, heat-seal, import tax etc.
4. Order Confirmation:
Buyer releases the order confirmation after some fair bargaining and many stages of sampling in comparison to other vendors. Buyer confirms the order via providing the master LC to vendor. Costing and sample are very vital for clinching orders defeating the competitors.
5. Purchase Order (P.O):
Buyer provides the purchase order to the vendor. Purchase order form is consists of style name, fabric, accessories, layout of trims, carton measurement, FG destination, retail link bridge instruction, shipment booking instruction, washing instruction, packing instructions, poly bags details etc.
6. Guarantee of payment:
Payment is determined via some ways like L/C or T/T, F.C.A (Foreign currency account) is required to do the task smoothly. USD is the currency to exchange remittance in international business.
7. Fabric & Accessories Booking:
Some textiles produce different sorts of fabrics like solid dyed, yarn dyed, printing and microfiber. Fabric is booked after scrutinizing the consumption via size wise and color wise. Greige booking (unbleached thread) is first if having a big order. By greige booking, we can minimize fabric suppliers lead time. We have to consider the price, qty, and lead-time as well as payment term while booking the fabric. Fabric booking is always important as it needs long lead time than accessories booking as it needs short lead time. So first, ensure fabric booking then place order for accessories.
8. Back to Back L/C:
Garment industry places the order to fabric and accessories supplier after getting the order from the buyer. They receive the Master L/C. In addition, they place the back to back L/C against master L/C. Back to back L/C could be 80% in comparison to master L/C not more than that.
9. Sampling: The procedure of developing or making sample is called “Sampling.” It’s a vital part to satisfy the buyer. A fascinated sample can change buyer’s motive and enhance more opportunity to increase relationship. Please find some narrative discussion regarding sample development:
a) Proto sample
Proto sample is the first and foremost sample. It is made at the initial stage. Sometimes it is made of available fabric with available accessories, and the vice versa is true. Vendor makes recap sample after getting comments on proto sample.
The purpose of the sample is to check workmanship and measurement deviation.
b) Fit Sample: Fit sample has to make by vendor after order confirmation. The vendor may make it of available fabric and accessories.
The primary objects of these samples are to check the fitness or measurement of the garments by buyers.
c) Pre- Production (P.P) Sample:
Pre- production (P.P) samples are made after order confirmation. It must be done by the vendor by actual fabric and accessories to get approval before step into bulk production. Once PP Sample inspected by the respected buyer, one piece pp sample kept by buyer and another one pp sample have to send to vendor after tagging.
P.P sample is a basic sample which is made in sample room to do bulk production and buyer must follow it if arise any technical problem.
d) Size set sample
Usually, size set sampling is done immediate before step into bulk production. S.M.L.XL.XXL these are common sizes. It can vary depending on wearer consumer’s sizes and age group. Basically to check the measurement and grading this is pre-requisite for production. This is done solid color assorted sizes or mixed color assorted sizes. These samples are made in the production floor for PP meeting or internal purpose.
Size set sample helps to improve pattern and production floor will get a common idea for smooth production.
e) Production Sample:
Production sample is made the initial stage of running production Buyer can estimate how the production is going on. This sample is collected from bulk floor.
f) Garments Test Sample: Garments Test Samples are collected from the production floor while bulk production is going on and must be tested in buyer nominated lab.
Samples need to be tested in testing house to make sure that the garments do not contain harmful elements.
g) Shipment Samples: Shipment sample needs to send buyer before arranging departure and but it is not always mandatory.
By these samples, buyer can compare the production sample with the shipment sample.
10. Fabric & Accessories in House: Vendor should check with material suppliers to ensure all fabrics and accessories in their hand to keep the production schedule. Production line might be hampered due to insufficient or wrong materials.
11. Inspection of materials & report making: All efforts might be in vain due to wrong, defects or low-quality materials. So, carefully check the quality & quantity of all fabrics and accessories in house. TQM and AQL are required to improve the factory quality section. After reviewing a report is made with the test data. After checking if found any defect or shortage of materials, knock the material supplier to replace as early as possible.
12. Pre- Production (P.P) Meeting: P.P meeting is required just before going to the bulk production. Approved P.P sample, approved mock-up, full worksheet and all other swatch cards need to present before arranging this meeting. All technical points and issues need to be described clearly to production people. All impotent concern person related to the production have to attend this meeting. It is conducted by the following person-
> Factory Merchandiser
> Factory QC
> Buying House merchandiser
> Buying House QC
> Pattern Maker
> Cutting in-charge
> Production Manager
> Sample man
> Store in-charge
> Finishing guy
> Maintenance guy
13. Pattern & marker making for bulk production:
Pattern making process is mainly done by two ways. Pattern is a hard paper which is made by the following each individual component for a style of garments. The whole design which is manual is drawn on manila board. This is one sort of hard paper. On the other hand, automatic pattern is created via computer software like Gerber Accumark. Consumption is come out via pattern. Basically, pattern design is made based on the middle size of the wearer from purchase order size ratio. If sizes are like S, M, L > pattern needs to be made based on M size. Sometimes we have to send the paper pattern with the garments to buyer.
Sewing pattern is accurate measurement wise cut piece to help in sewing individual portion or panel. What will be sewing allowance it can be known by sewing pattern?
Marker is created and printed in all parts of the wears in all sizes for bulk production. Marker is a thin paper which contains all components of different sizes for a particular style of garments. Measurement grading is applied in all sizes markers like S.M.L.X.XL.XXL to reduce fabric consumption. Single marker contains only one size, but mixed marker contains many sizes to minimize fabric usages. Higher percentage of marker may secure your production line. Multiple markers are applied to enough fabric, but single marking is done if fabric exists minimal. Leuctra and Garber both are the popular marker machines. Sometimes buyer wants digital mini marker for the wearers.
14. Production Line Set-up: Production line set-up is the arrangement of sewing machines where sewing machines are set up chronologically for smooth production of a particular style. Even nice sequence of sewing machines set up may increase daily production.
15. Trial or pilot Cutting: This is test cutting to check or measure the overall SMV, production processing, machine adjustment, workmanship, technical problem or efficiency and production cost. Small quantity (like 100 to 300 prices of garments) of fabric is cutting for initial checking. Trail cutting required before step into bulk cutting. It will smooth and secure bulk production.
16. Bulk Cutting: If trial cutting is done and garments are passed from production line by QC, then bulk cutting may proceed to expedite manufacturing process.
17. Numbering, Bundling & Sorting: Numbering, Bundling, and sorting process are done once bulk cutting executed. Then cut pieces have to send for cut panel checking.
18. Cut panel checking:
Q.A guy has to check each part visually to find out fabric defects. Good pieces are sent to the production line, and defect pieces need to keep for reporting. Defect pieces have to replace by cutting section.
19. Sewing: Different sorts of sewing machines are used in the production line to amalgamate cut panel attachment for making the whole garments. As bulk production is a chain process, so sequence of sewing machines set up is very necessary to expedite sewing functions.
20. Table Inspection:
Table inspection is required to minimize quality fault in finished goods. Here, all garments are checked very carefully by QC. Aero- plane system is one of the modern quality checking system.
Finishing includes ironing, packing, cartooning etc. It is accomplished immediately after production (non-wash garments) or washes (washing clothes). Cutting uncut threads, dirt removal, draw cord placement checking. Finishing is including pressing and packing the poly bags or blister and racking inside cartoons.
Pre- inspection is done by factory QC. Quality department people check the wearer attentively.
23. Final Inspection:
Buyer representative conducts final inspection. Vendor must rectify the drawback if buyer QC finds any discrepancy or fault in wearer. Sometimes buyer nominated Quality inspects the goods directly or buyer urge to do 3rd party inspection entities like ITS, BUREAU VERITAS, SGS, and INTERTEK.
24. Delivery: If everything is OK, then supplier sent the goods to the buyer. Always try to hit the target delivery date to erase hassle. Follow up with the customer in respect of shipment and informing him shipment details. Quick response and follow up in respect of any of the buyers query may enhance relationship to grow up business.